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23 October 2014
Vortrag „Long term dynamics in the Serengeti Ecosystem: Lessons for Conservation and Society “ ...
25 September 2014
Dengue fever and malaria in the Himalayas...
18 September 2014
Vorratshaltung beim Tannenhäher: Samenverstecke nutzen dem "gefiederten Förster" mehr als den Bäumen...
15 September 2014
The Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre opens its doors to the public...
11 September 2014
Pesticides are more toxic for soil organisms in dry soil and at enhanced temperatures ...
01 September 2014
Vortrag 4. September „The Climate Change Challenge and Opportunities“ ...
01 August 2014
More People Means More Plant Growth, NASA Data Show ...
25 July 2014
Erstmals Sandmücke in Hessen entdeckt...
09 July 2014
Climate change: Tropical species are most vulnerable to rising temperatures...
25 June 2014
Vogelschutz lohnt sich! – Vogelbestände in Osteuropa profitieren von neuer Gesetzgebung...
18 June 2014
Spanish slug – busting an invasion myth...
17 June 2014
The hidden history of rain: plant waxes reveal rainfall changes during the last 24,000 years...
11 June 2014
It’s complicated - new insights into the evolutionary history of bears ...
12 May 2014
A tale of survival – scientists reveals how fish were able to colonise poisonous springs...
08 May 2014
New ways for understanding the link between the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and species diversity...
29 April 2014
Gehen oder bleiben? – Neue Emmy Noether-Gruppe erforscht die Klima-Anpassung von Vögeln ...
08 April 2014
Mapping ecosystem services: New method shows seed dispersal pathways of hornbills...
26 March 2014
Study yields 'Genghis Khan' of brown bears, and brown and polar bear evolution...
18 March 2014
Ants plant tomorrow's rainforest...
04 March 2014
Allergikern blüht etwas: Erhöhte Fitness der Beifußambrosie in Europa nachgewiesen ...
12 February 2014
Zukunftsthema Infektionskrankheiten – zwei neue Forschungsprojekte im Bereich Medizinische Biodiversität und Parasitologie...
05 February 2014
Aquatic Insects – a tremendous potential for research on diversification...
05 February 2014
Coffee: More biodiversity, better harvest ...
20 January 2014
Erfolgreiche Renaturierung von Gewässern: Das biologische Umfeld ist entscheidend...
Dengue fever and malaria in the Himalayas
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, September 25, 2014. Mosquito bites have dangerous consequences if the insects transmit viruses or parasites like those causing dengue fever or malaria. Globally, billions of people are at risk from both diseases – and their geographic distributions are rapidly expanding. While the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that each year 22,000 people die from dengue fever and 627,000 from malaria, recent studies talk about 207 million malaria cases in 2012 and more than 100 million new dengue virus infections per year. In part, these numbers have been attributed to global warming which facilitates the spread of dengue virus and its vectors into colder, previously unaffected regions.
Research by Nepalese and German scientists from the Nepal Health Research Council, Goethe University and the LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre analyzes the current situation of these diseases in the Himalayan country of Nepal and highlights how they profit from climate change and globalization.
Dengue fever: high risk, little knowledge
Although the first case of dengue fever in Nepal was only reported in 2004, the country was shaken by an epidemic already in 2010. In a study puplished in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases the researchers report that the mosquito species that can transmit dengue virus have already colonized mountains and valleys of intermediate elevations in Nepal including the country’s capital Kathmandu. Survey data from lowland and highland regions of Nepal, published in the journal PLOS One, show that local people know only very little about the disease: Although about 75% had previously heard of dengue fever, only a few knew how the virus is transmitted and which symptoms typically indicate dengue fever. While the majority had a positive attitude towards measures to prevent mosquito breeding, their practical implementation was very variable depending on the region. "Fifty percent of the total population of Nepal live in the warmer lowlands and are particularly vulnerable because there, mosquitos can breed more successfully. Interestingly, these people take less prevention measures than those in the highlands” says Meghnath Dhimal of the Nepal Health Research Council who conducted the studies as part of his PhD research as a scholar of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) at Goethe University. “One explanation could be that mosquito nuisance only recently appeared in many highland areas of Nepal in the wake of global warming and better road communication. Thus, people there show a greater interest in controlling the dangerous newcomers”, adds Dr. Ulrich Kuch, Head of the Department of Tropical Medicine and Public Health at the Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine of Goethe University and an author of the studies.
Malaria: Imported cases as a challenge
In spite of a difficult political and economic environment, Nepal has made tremendous achievements to eliminate malaria during the last fifty years, a study by the same team in Malaria Journal highlights: In the mid-1980s the number of malaria cases in Nepal was around 42,000 per year; this was reduced to around 2,000 cases in 2012 with only one reported death. This success is the result of new treatments, the distribution of insecticide impregnated mosquito bed-nets and access to free health services run by the state. However, significant challenges remain. The lead author of the study, Meghnath Dhimal, cautions that an outbreak of malaria may occur any time, even in low-risk areas, following severe changes in the ecology or extreme weather events and that there is a continuous rise in the numbers of imported cases of malaria. In addition, the risk of malaria transmission in the temperate regions may increase because global warming has more pronounced effects in the higher altitudes of Nepal.
Nepal’s lessons for Europe
Dengue fever and malaria are also of public health concern in Europe. Apart from climate change there are other similarities to Nepal such as localized malaria outbreaks in southern Europe, a rapid spread of exotic mosquito species that can transmit dengue virus, and thousands of tourists per year who return home with the virus. "With respect to dengue fever we are concerned that infected travelers returning to areas where tiger mosquitoes are already common – this is a large part of Europe south of the Alps – might be bitten and then transmit the virus", concludes Dr. Kuch. Raising the awareness of medical staff and the general population about mosquito control and the transmission and symptoms of the diseases are now increasingly recognized as important in Europe; similar to the tasks that the researchers propose for Nepal.
Dhimal, Meghnath et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population of highland and lowland communities in central Nepal (2014) – PLoS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102028 http://tinyurl.com/mwd8sjo
Dhimal, Meghnath et al. Malaria control in Nepal 1963–2012: challenges on the path towards elimination (2014) – Malaria Journal, doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-241 http://tinyurl.com/pj2tltl
Dhimal et al. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal (2014) – PLOS One Neglected Tropical Diseases, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003035 http://tinyurl.com/pjvdnl6
Due to climate change malaria trans-mitting mosquitos may be able to colonize mountain valleys of Nepal. © Meghnath Dhimal [Download in 300 dpi]
Researchers (lead author Meghnath Dhimal, to the right) interviewed inhabitants of the lowlands and high-lands of Nepal as part of their survey on dengue fever. ©Meghnath Dhimal [Download in 300 dpi]
For more information please contact:
Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) & LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)
Tel. +49 69 7542-1807
Dr. Ulrich Kuch
Head, Department of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine,
Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Health Sciences Centre
Tel.: +49 (0)69 6301 6650
LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F),
Tel. +49 (0)69 7542 1838
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